# 11 Useful PHP Math or Arithmetic Functions

PHP is rich with inbuilt functions that can save you a lot of time and effort. There are several mathematical functions present in PHP which allows you to do a lot within a few lines.

Here are the most frequently used php math or arithmetic functions:

**ceil(), floor() and round()**

These three functions are used to round up numbers. The function ceil() rounds to a greater integer, floor() rounds to a lower integer and round() rounds to the nearest integer.

Example for all three:

<?php

$a = 1.2;

$b = 1.8;

$c = 1.5;

echo ceil($a).”<br />”; //returns 2

echo ceil($b).”<br />”; //returns 2

echo ceil($c).”<br />”; //returns 2

echo floor($a).”<br />”; //returns 1

echo floor($b).”<br />”; //returns 1

echo floor($c).”<br />”; //returns 1

echo round($a).”<br />”; //returns 1

echo round($b).”<br />”; //returns 2

echo round($c); //returns 2

?>

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 |
Output: 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 |

**fmod()**

This function is used to find out the remainder when one number is divided by the other. For example when 5 is divided by 2, the remainder 1 is returned. The % operator can also be used instead of this function.

Example:

<?php

$a = 5;

$b = 2;

echo fmod($a,$b); //Other way is $a%$b

?>

1 2 |
Output: 1 |

**max() and min()**

These two functions are used to find the maximum and minimum values from a set of numbers or arrays. Obviously, max() returns the highest number whereas min() returns the lowest.

Example:

<?php

$a=array(1,2,3,4,5);

echo max($a); //returns 5

echo “<br />”;

echo min($a); // returns 1

?>

1 2 3 |
Output: 5 1 |

**rand()**

Use this function to generate a random integer. You can specify two numbers between which the random number will be located. Random number generated can be inclusive of the two numbers that you specified.

Example:

<?php

echo rand(1,10); //random number between 1 and 10 inclusive

echo “<br />”;

echo rand(); //can be any random number

?>

1 2 3 |
Example Output: 9 534675351 |

**pi()**

This one simply generates the value of pi. You can use the value to perform other calculations.

Example:

<?php

echo pi();

?>

1 2 |
Output: 3.1415926535898, |

**pow()**

Calculates the value of a certain number when it is raised by a power. The number and the power can be positive, negative or zero.

Example:

<?php

echo pow(3,2).”<br />”; //Generates 9

echo pow(3,-2).”<br />”;; //Generates 0.11111111111111

echo pow(-3,3).”<br />”;; //Generates -27

echo pow(-3,-3); //Generates -0.037037037037037

?>

1 2 3 4 5 |
Output: 9 0.11111111111111 -27 -0.037037037037037 |

**sqrt()**

This one finds the square root of numbers.

Example:

<?php

echo sqrt(9); //Generates 3;

?>

1 2 |
Output: 3 |

**base_convert()**

This one converts a number from one base to another. You can perform binary to octal, decimal to hexadecimal for example.

Syntax:

1 |
base_convert(number,sourcebase,targetbase); |

Example:

<?

$a=10;

echo base_convert($a, 10, 2); //converts 10 in decimal to binary

?>

1 2 |
Output: 1010 |

There are tons of other php math functions. If you are looking for the entire list, click here for the official resource.

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